13 min read

A Lecture by Freedom Giant Matua Job Richard🇺🇬, a Politician belonging to the ruling party of National Resistance Movement (NRM) ; an Aspirant for National Vice Chairperson Central Executive Committee (CEC) , a top decision/policy making organ of the ruling party. @job_matua , +256704023756 .

Preamble :
Key questions.

  1. Is leadership necessary in human society?
  2. How can can leaders of civilized societies emerge?

Key Definitions;
A. Democracy
This is a system of government by the whole population , typically done through elected Representatives.

Former US President Abraham Lincoln defined Democracy as a government of the people, by the people and for the people.
Meaning Abraham Lincoln understood Democracy to embrace;

  1. Legal,
  2. Social relations between humans as well as
  3. Political systems.

Therefore, Democracy entails certain things including but NOT limited to;
a) Participation of the people to choose their Representatives/Leaders( which is truly the main essence of democracy),
b) Respect for the will of the majoritybut not excluding the minority,
c) The Independence of the Institution ,
d) The Rule of Law .

B. Leadership .
This is the action of leading the people, a group or an Organization or a Nation.

Leadership is daunting task that requires CONCENSUS, ACCEPTABILITY , AND ULTIMATELY THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE ( majority voice).

If the above requirements are to be achieved, then Leaders must emerge from democratic processes involving the full participation of the people in choosing their Representatives or Leaders.

In pre-conclusion, the global anatomy of the modern day societies require democratic processes to elect leaders.
Promoting democratic leadership in the global anatomy is therefore, a necessity but not just a choice.

  1. Attaining totally democratic society is NOT just a journey into Picnic. It is a very serious thing requiring ultimate sacrifices.
    For the case of Kenya, it took imprisonment of Rt Hon Raila Amolo Odinga for a very long period, the riot of 2007 and nullification of results by Supreme Court in 2017 to reach where the Country is now.
    Yes the Kenyan Democracy is not yet perfect but it is better than that of my Country Uganda.
  2. Democracy itself is experiment which is not perfect but continuously evolving. Actually US has Democracy of over 230 years still has issues of deep divisions along racial lines to address.
  3. That minority wanting Democracy in an Autocratic system must then use Institutions like the Judiciary & Legislature to make laws to take democratic path. This is what happened in Kenya over the years from Independence to reach where Kenya is now. The same thing happened in United States of America.

In conclusion, the struggle continues and Freedom Giants particularly the elites and youths must remain relentless in pursuing Democracy in the Global Anatomy.

This is a deliberate and purposely done action to ensure & encourage the attainment of the ultimate will of the people in Leadership in the global anatomy.

It is deliberate because negative forces in human society always encourage dictatorship/autocracy emanating from families whereby men/husbands exercise dictatorship over other family members like Children and wives.
This is worst in Africa whereby dictatorship has been part of our culture. It even gets worse in Societies with monarchies where election are actually very alien to such societies.

The troubles African Countries are going through in-terms of growth of our democracies originate from our cultures which entrenched dictatorship and we find ourselves being held back by these cultural mindsets.

How can we break through ?
We must emphasize Independence of Institutions of Govt.
The following Institutions are very important in promoting Democracy in any Nation.

  1. The Judiciary ,
  2. The Legislature ,
  3. The Electoral Commission ,
  4. The Executive ,
  5. The Army/Police/Security agencies.

Without well functioning of the above Institutions in an independent manner, Democracy will always be a very huge task to reflect the WILL OF THE PEOPLE. Next is the details on the significance of each Institutions of govt in promoting DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP. Let us first digest post 1 & 2. As we all reflect on these Institutions taking into account how they function in your own Countries and in the region or the World. Ghana’s pathway in Democracy is something worth studying. Infact Inter party Cooperation in Uganda is a template from Ghana Including many Laws.

The major pillar of democratic society is a functioning democracy is the Judiciary
All functioning democracies world over have majorly succeeded because of having independent judiciary.

The Courts play Important roles in;

  1. Influencing laws and policies;
  2. Restraining undemocratic characters by taming their excesses in democratic processes,
  3. Legislating on the bench through interpretation of Laws that are contradictory, and through Court rulings which actually become Laws because they form the List of Authorities for future references.
  4. Maintaining the faith and trust of the people in elections by determining any election petition.

It is the Judiciary that also deals with criminal matters creating law and order and by a larger extension promoting the rule of law. Judiciary is therefore, centrally located in the good health and wealth of Democracy in any Country. Infact it is a core determinant of whether democracies can grow or NOT. This means that Judges must exercise fairness and independence to dispense justice in the most fair and transparent manners. Kenya’s Judiciary for example has been very instrumental in Enhancing jurisprudence and ultimately democratic growth. The iconic former Chief Justice Kanani Maraga led Supreme Court that nullified the impugned Chebukati Wafula ( Chair of IEBC), Presidential election results of first election 2017. That action plus Maina Keai ruling drastically changed the democratic processes in Kenya. When you compare Kenya’s Democracy with that of my Country Uganda, you will realize that Uganda’s judiciary still lacks the Courage to nullify impugned election results. In both 2001 & 2006, the entire Bench of the Supreme Court in Uganda agreed with the Petitioner Dr Kizza Besigye Kifefe that there were serious irregularities committed by electoral Commission & security Agencies but reluctantly refused to nullify the results reasoning that the irregularities were not enough to affect the results in substantial manner. { This where the question of whether our Institutions can really be independent comes in).
I can say that independence of any Institution is NOT guaranteed by the Institution itself but by the Officers incharge of those Institutions and the people who are able to exercise checks and balances.

Justice Kenani Maraga of Kenya nullified the results but is now being praised than being vilified yet Justice Benjamin Odoki of Uganda whose position actuator shifted the balance of power in favour of President Yoweri Museveni in petitions of both 2001 and 2006 . This means Justice Benjamin Odoki’s own fears have failed the supreme Court decisions of Uganda. The sum total of the effect is that people in Uganda have less faith in the Supreme Court concerning Presidential Election Petitions than it is in Kenya. Courts in India have really shaped Democracy not only in India but also across the World.
The same thing applies to Courts in UK .

I want to emphasize that it is the duty of every Citizen to promote democratic leadership in his or her own Country. That is why Freedom Giants must be Relentless in pursuing the democratic leadership in the Global Anatomy. World over, Democracies continue to have problems and therefore, must be cared for. Democracy is too delicate to leave to whom it may concern . Fidelity to the Constitution requires serious care to prevent it from being abused. There is still a challenge with the Appointment of Judges in the Global Anatomy. This is happening everywhere Including in United States of America whereby a Republican President nominate Conservative Judges while Democratic Party led President tend to nominate Liberal Judges.

Whereas in most Countries there exists Judicial Service Commissions, there are major questions about the Independence of the Judges because Presidents or Executive Prime Ministers are still being involved in issuing Instruments of Appointment of Judges.


Preamble .
All Countries using Common Wealth Practices have almost similar duties of the Legislative Arm of the Govt.

This is the most powerful arm of Govt that has powers to make laws on any matter concerning affairs of sovereign Country. Legislature has sweeping power exclusively allocated to Members of Parliament/Senate in a democratic society to make laws on any matter.

Constitutionally, most Parliaments have the following duties:

  1. Make laws ie Legislate.
  2. Play oversight role
  3. Appropriate National budget
  4. And represent their Constituencies.

Parliament is very important in promoting democratic leadership in the global anatomy given its powers to make laws. With a very strong Legislature and Judiciary, Democracy is totally guaranteed in a Country. But when Parliament is exclusively controlled by the Executive, then democracy suffers most. This is what happens in Countries like Tanzania, South Sudan, Rwanda, Zimbabwe etc where Parliament is actually controlled by the Executive Arm of the Government. I must emphasize that separation of power provided for in most Constitutions doesn’t mean complete independence of arms of Govt but rather encourages checks and balances especially when one arm wants to run astray. Independence of an arm of Govt is therefore, something that is purely guaranteed by the Individuals holding such Offices. In Countries with Parliamentary System like South Africa, Parliament has been very critical in promoting DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP. The significance of this is that MPs can even remove a President by a vote of no confidence alone. We have this play in UK with both Theresa May & Boris Johnson been removed by Parliament. (NB; Boris Johnson resigned due to pressure causes by MPs.

Parliament is critical in curtailing Presidents with dictatorial tendencies. Here MPs can impeach a President. This happened in USA whereby President Donald Trump was successfully impeached only survive in Senate. The surest & easiest way of promoting Democracy is by electing rightful members of Parliament & Senate. In an effort to promote democratic leadership in the global anatomy, we Freedom Giants must take greater interest in the positions for MPs & Senators. ANC of South Africa and CCM of Tanzania have both held the grips on power by ensuring that they have majority numbers for MPs. Unfortunately, this majority number of MPs has been abused to pass funny laws in some cases.

In certain extreme cases like the one we had in Gambia of extreme totalitarian President like Yahya Jammeh, having many Opposition people in Parliament can ensure survival of Democracy though a seriously limping one. My conclusion is that Parliament is the second most important Institution that should be used in promoting DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP.

It is should be noted that the main essence of democracy is people choosing their Representatives/Leaders through elections.

Electoral Commissions organize elections and therefore, must be truly independent and credibly resourced. The filling of Electoral Commissions with people having credibility questions is very dangerous and can trigger real Political crisis. The cause of nullification of election result in 2017 in Kenya was as a result of transgressions occasioned by the Chairman Wafula Chebukati of the IEBC . We wait to see the outcome of 2022 Presidential Petition to understand whether he (Mr Chebukati Wafula) changed or not.

Elections organized by electoral Commission should be fair , transparent , free credible and verifiable. This can only happen if individuals mandated to organize elections truly exercise great sense judgement and act with ultimate FIDELITY to the laws and patriotic spirit. When elections are bungled, the will of the people is not reflected and people lose trust in the processes and this when done over time leads to voter apathy. It is very important to note that young people are gradually pulling away from exercise their Constitutional rights to vote. This is a very dangerous trend we Freedom Giants must strive to correct in our drive to promote democratic leadership in the Global Anatomy.

Elections will never be perfect anywhere Including in grown Democracies. We all saw an Incumbent President rejecting results of an Election in United States of America.

The Army, the Police and other sister security forces/agencies are important in promoting Democracy. In all the Countries where Democracy is stable, the security forces do not take open sides with any particular political party.
But where the security forces take sides, Democracy in such situation becomes a sham because freedom of expression and association are usually curtailed in such situation.
We see this in Rwanda whereby Opposition political parties actually don’t campaign freely and always face trumped up charges like the one Valerie is facing. In clarity, security forces must be neutral and pay allegiance to the Country but not an individual. In Uganda, security forces are being accused by Opposition elements of siding with the ruling party that is always being fiercely denied by both ruling party and the security forces. Democratic leadership therefore, needs a neutral Security just like a neutral Electoral Commission.

Every society and every Country has unique social, economic and political challenges usually dictated by:

a) Social disposition
b) Class struggles.

In Africa, our Societies are structured along tribes/ethnicities and religious lines while in Western Countries like USA, their Societies are structured along racial & economic classes. Democracy therefore, must NOT be one size fits all affair. Every Country should actually have its own form/appearance of Democracy but maintaining the essence/substance of people choosing their leaders. This is the hardest rock in any conversation about Democracy because people expect American liberal democracy to be copied & pasted in say South Sudan. Infact most African democracies are not doing well as a result of attempting to mimic western democracies. Africa must have her own organic growth and development of Democracy.

India and China are both Democracies of more like similar appearances but China has been vilified by Western Countries for not being liberal democracy yet socio-political realities in China are totally different from those in USA or UK. Political Scientists and everyone interested in politics should understand that Democracy needs to evolve organically. We must stop this idea of copy and paste in Democracy. For example, World bank, IMF and Western donors forced Uganda into multiparty democracy that had failed in 1960s without due considerations for socio-political realities. I can confirm that my Country is getting more divided and tribal undertones are riding faster than when we were under Movement System of Governance whereby leaders were chosen basing on individual merits than political parties. Uganda’s social disposition along religion and tribe/ethnic group and regions doesn’t over fertile ground for such highly divisive multiparty democracy. Indeed there are so many challenges facing the multiparty democracy in Uganda.

In a nutshell, Democracy must be seen in essence/substance/content but not appearance/form. What is important in Democracy is people choosing their Representatives/Leaders in a free, fair, transparent, verifiable and accountable elections. Being multiparty or not should not be a yard stick to measure Democracy. D.R Congo has over 200 political parties. Should we say it is the best Democracy in the world? The answer is a big no.

I therefore would like to very sincerely thank Global Freedom Board and AFRICAN VOICES INTERNATIONAL . I end by saying Freedom in Africa is our motto.

May God Bless You Always.







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